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Heilongjiang: improve the mechanization quality of ordinary farmers to "help" the soybean industry

according to statistics, by the end of 2018, the number of tractors in Heilongjiang province had reached 1.605 million, of which 36000 were tractors with more than 100 horsepower. The comprehensive mechanization level of soybean production, cultivation and harvest in the province reached 99.66%, of which the level of machine tillage reached 99.9%, the level of machine sowing reached 99.91%, and the level of machine harvest reached 99.12%, basically realizing the whole process of mechanized operation of soybeans. Agricultural mechanization is becoming a strong support for the development of soybean planting industry in Heilongjiang Province. On the existing basis, how can the development of soybean industry in Heilongjiang Province rely on the advantages of agricultural mechanization, give play to the role of advanced agricultural machinery and equipment, realize large-scale planting and standardized production of soybeans, so as to improve unit yield, reduce costs, increase income, and create a green and high-quality soybean brand in Longjiang

large agricultural machinery produces high-yield soybeans

in 2018, Wudalianchi city successfully completed the "full mechanization test demonstration project of soybean production" deployed by the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas. The project results fully demonstrate the important role of Agricultural Mechanization in soybean production

SUN Xijun, chairman of Qingshan modern agricultural machinery cooperative in Wudalianchi City, is the person in charge of this project. According to him, the cooperative has more than 30 sets of modern agricultural machines and tools, which can mechanization the whole process of soybean production. According to the technical requirements of the project, they began mechanical subsoiling and land preparation in the autumn of 2017 and precision sowing with seeders in the spring of 2018. At the same time of sowing, mechanical layered fertilization is carried out, and then mechanical herbicide weeding, mechanical intertillage and mechanical topdressing are carried out. In the soybean harvest period, the combine harvester is used to harvest, and the straw is crushed and returned to the field

the results of the project made sun Xijun sigh: the effect of mechanization in the whole process of soybean production is really obvious. The yield measurement results of the project experts show that the yield of soybeans in the pilot demonstration project area is 200 kg per mu, compared with 155 kg per mu in the field. By using large-scale machinery for precision on-demand sowing, while increasing the number of plants, seed waste and over dense planting are avoided. On average, 1 kg of seeds are saved per mu of soybeans, and 6 yuan of seed expenditure is saved per mu; Implement mechanical fertilization, improve the fertilizer efficiency utilization rate by more than 20%, and save an average of 7 kg of fertilizer investment per mu, saving 21 yuan per mu. In the project area, 55 yuan is saved per mu, 52.7 yuan is increased per mu, and 107.5 yuan is increased per mu

Wudalianchi city is the main soybean planting area in Heilongjiang Province. The author learned from Wudalianchi agricultural bureau that the soybean planting area was 2.46 million mu in 2018, accounting for 70.8% of the total cultivated land area of the city. In the past two years, the city has popularized and applied a number of new agricultural mechanization technologies, significantly improving the yield of soybeans. Compared with the previous three years, the average yield of soybeans per mu in 2018 increased by 22 kg

Li Xianyi, deputy director of the Agricultural Mechanization Management Office of the Heilongjiang Provincial Department of agriculture and rural affairs, said that relying on the advantages of large agricultural machinery, Heilongjiang Province aims at mechanical standardized planting, focusing on the organizational form, planting mode and supporting measures, which has laid a solid foundation for improving the level of soybean production

at present, among the 1481 Modern Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives in the province, 248 cooperatives grow soybeans, accounting for 18.2% of the total number of cooperatives. All parts of Heilongjiang Province have played a demonstration and leading role in Modern Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives, taking the lead in promoting excellent varieties and the use of new mechanized plastics for soybeans, expanding technology, improving large-scale planting and standardized operations for soybeans, and demonstrating and promoting advanced production modes such as large ridge and double row planting

after years of practice, a scientific and complete planting mode has been formed in the agricultural reclamation area of Heilongjiang Province, including three mechanized high-yield cultivation modes of soybean, including large ridge double row, large ridge three row, large ridge double row (three row) original ridge card planting. To adapt to this production mode, agricultural machinery production enterprises have upgraded and transformed soybean planting machinery, and some new models of soybean land preparation, ridging and large ridge three row seeders have emerged in the market

the mechanization quality of ordinary farmers is not high enough to become a weakness

as a senior agricultural machinery expert, Jiangminghai, deputy chief engineer of Heilongjiang Academy of agricultural machinery engineering, said: "In 2017, the planting area of soybeans in Heilongjiang Province was about 51million mu, of which about 8million Mu were planted by agricultural reclamation, 3million Mu were planted by local agricultural machinery cooperatives, and about 40million Mu were planted by ordinary farmers to induce tissue regeneration such as ligaments and central nerves. The area of Soybeans Planted by ordinary farmers accounted for more than 78% of the total planting area, and the degree of large-scale and standardization of soybean production was not high." Correspondingly, the per unit yield of soybeans in Heilongjiang Province is divided into three levels: the average of agricultural reclamation is about 175 kg/mu, the average of Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives is about 145 kg/mu, and the average of ordinary farmers is about 125 kg/mu

although the mechanization of soybean production in Heilongjiang Province has developed well on the whole, and mechanization has been basically realized in the vast rural areas, we should also clearly see that the quality of this mechanization is not high, and there is a significant gap between the allocation of advanced machines and tools and Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives. Even in Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives with better equipment, there are weak links in field management. In particular, ordinary farmers mostly plant soybeans on small plots, with small tractor horsepower, backward supporting sowing machines and tools, old-fashioned state, shortage of tillage and topdressing machines and tools, low soybean output, high cost per kilogram of grain, and poor benefits, which have become a weakness in the development of soybean industry in Heilongjiang Province

Luan Xiaoyan, a researcher at the Soybean Research Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, also believes that at present, the large-scale industrialization of soybeans indicates that the market potential of polyurethane insulation materials in China is huge, and the production can only be seen in farms. The traditional soybean production conditions in rural areas are poor, and the management is extensive. There is no organic combination of good fields, varieties and methods, and the standardization of land preparation, sowing, harvesting and other processes cannot be achieved, It is not conducive to the increase of production

standardized agricultural machinery operation in the field is the guarantee

Jiang Minghai suggested that efforts should be made to optimize the planting mode and improve the standard of agricultural machinery operation in order to make up for the shortcomings of soybean production. Strive to improve the level and quality of rural mechanization, and gradually narrow the gap between ordinary farmers and Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives; Continue to promote the scale operation of land circulation, strengthen the construction of socialized service system represented by Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives, and give full play to the role of existing advanced agricultural machinery and equipment; Strengthen the scientific research on the weak links of the whole process mechanization of soybeans, and establish an experimental demonstration base; We will strengthen the demonstration and promotion of new technologies and models of agricultural mechanization, and further narrow the gap between rural areas and farms

Li Xianyi introduced that Heilongjiang Province will comprehensively promote the whole process mechanization of soybean production. Modern agricultural machinery cooperatives have large-scale agricultural machinery and are the main body of soybean standardized planting. All regions will give full play to the main role of Modern Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives, demonstrate and lead the large-scale planting and standardized production of soybeans, change the current situation of soybean mixed planting and mixing, and also provide an 8-channel analog multi-channel switch and joint addressing logic collection, mixed storage and mixed use, so as to realize characteristic planting, differential development and specialized production, Create a safe and green soybean brand. And gradually establish and improve the socialized service system of agricultural machinery, and actively encourage new agricultural business entities such as agricultural machinery cooperatives to carry out cross regional operations, land trusteeship and other socialized services of agricultural machinery, so as to promote cost saving and efficiency increase in agricultural production

recently, Heilongjiang Province proposed to implement the agricultural machinery equipment upgrading project in the overall plan for the revitalization of the soybean industry, that is, according to the requirements of large-scale and standardized production of soybeans, improve the existing machinery and equipment of Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives, optimize the allocation of agricultural machinery, and build a new agricultural machinery service system suitable for soybean production. Strive to achieve a standardized agricultural machinery operation rate of more than 95% in the field of the province by 2023

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